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Organisms,Habitat & Ecological balance
2013-03-03, 7:47 PM

Organisms, Habitat & Ecological balance

The places where an organism lives and grows known as habitat, lives in one place and share their resources by interacting with each other.

The interaction and interdependence between the varieties of organisms in a habitat in must and should. Based on this interaction they are of 2 types as follows

Ø  Intraspecific interaction

This is the interaction between the individuals of same species for food and shelter in a habitat.

Example: Cows for grass

When several members of the same species are living together there will be a tug of war among them. In that, stronger members will survive where as weaker ones will die hence they will be eliminated from the population.

·         Advantages

ü  Control the size of the population.

ü  Beneficial to the species ad are not lethal.

ü  Members in the competition pass the characters to their off springs of next generation.

 

Ø  Interspecific interaction

This is the interaction between the individuals of different species for food and shelter in a habitat.

Example: Different species possess different food habits hence interaction will at minimum level.

When two or more different species compete for the same type of food, there will be an interaction which may be beneficial to both or harmful to both or either beneficial or harmful. Based on this interactions it is subdivided in to 2 types as follows

·         Symbiosis: It is a close relationship between two organisms from different species and are of 3 types

·         Mutualism: It a relationship where both organisms are benefited.       Examples: Lichens(algae & Fungi), Leguminous plants(Rhizobium)

·         Commensalism: It is a relationship where one organism is benefited while other organism may be harmed or may not be harmed.           Example: Spider(Webs on trees),E.coli (Human intestine)

·         Parasitism: It is a relationship where one organism is benefited while other is harmed.              Examples: Aphids(Sucks the plant juices).They are of two types

ü  Partial parasites: Lives for a short period.             Example: Leech.

ü  Permanent parasites: Lives throughout the life. Example: E.coli.

It is of two types

ü  Ectoparasites: Outside the organism. Example: Lice.

ü  Endoparasites: Inside the organism. Example: E.hystolitica.

·         Antagonism

It is a relationship in which one of the species is benefited and other is harmed. They are of two types

ü  Antibiosis: It is relationship between two or more organisms i.e., detrimental to one of them.

Example: It is the important source for preparing the antibiotics which helps to kill the microorganisms present in the body and protects from diseases.

In marine water toxic substances are produced by large number of micro organisms known as red-tide cause’s catastrophic destruction of fishes.

ü  Predation:It is a relationship between the species in which one species uses another’s food.                Example: Eagle.

 

Ø  Ecological balance

Generally all this leads to an increase in the population size of the predator and decrease in population size of the prey hence it leads to catastrophic effect. This is mainly due to construction of dams, hunting of animals and deforestation methods.

All the organisms have a right to live on this planet as man. We should respect this and allow other organisms to live and share the wealth of this planet. So our motto should be LIVE and LET LIVE.

 

 

 

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