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Land as Habitat & Adaptations
2013-03-03, 7:59 PM

Land as Habitat & Adaptations

The surface of the earth is considered to be most variable in terms of time and geography. The organisms that lives and propagate on land referred as terrestrial organisms.

Examples: Trees, animals, man etc.

It is mainly associated with the physico-chemical factors of the environment. The important factors of the habitat are moisture, temperature, air, substratum, interrelationship of population and geographical barriers. The habitat is divided into six types namely

ü  Prairies

ü  Steppe

ü  Deserts

ü  Forests

ü  Tundra’s

ü  Caves


Ø  Prairies

It is the intermediate conditions between the forests and open land, trees are absent. The soil is rich in organic matter and dark in colour, annual rainfall is 26 – 30 inches.

Examples: Bison, Grass hoppers , beetles etc.,

Ø  Steppe

It is the region without trees, covered with rough grasses and shrubs in spring season. In summer, due to drought conditions it becomes like a desert where as in winter covered with snow. The annual rainfall is 10 – 12 inches.

Examples: Ants, Grasshopper, Termites, Reptiles, Birds etc.,

Ø  Deserts

The annual rainfall is below 10 inches. Scarcity of water is the main factor of this region.

·         Plants: They have succulent stems which help to store the water with small and narrow leaves or without leaves. When leaves are absent, stem acts as leaf to carry out photosynthesis and if leaves are present they are covered with a wax layer which prevents the evaporation of water.

Examples: Cactus, Opuntia etc.,

·         Animals: Camels develop a device in the body to store the water. Lizard’s eye lids modify into plates and in rattle snake colour helps in warming and defending.


Ø  Forests

The annual rainfall exceeds 80 -90 inches and the temperature is fairly uniform throughout the year and are divided into three types as follows

·         Tropical rain forests

The warm and wet makes up the climate, the annual rainfall is 80 – 90 inches and the average temperature is 60 - 70⁰f.


ü  Invertebrates: Snails, Scorpions, Spiders etc.,

ü  Vertebrates: Chameleons,Elephants,Monkeys etc.,

·         Deciduos forests

The precipitation makes up the climate, annual rainfall is 30 – 60 inches and the average temperature is 50 - 60⁰f.


ü  Invertebrates: Worms, Snails, Insects etc.,

ü  Vertebrates: Tree frogs, Owls, Wood peckers etc.,

·         Coniferous forests

The green conifers make up the climate, annual rainfall is 40 – 60 inches and the average temperature is 40 - 60⁰f.


ü  Invertebrates : Wasps, Beetles, Saw flies etc.,

ü  Vertebrates : Squirrels, deers, foxes etc.,

Ø  Tundra’s

These are the wet arctic grass lands with low temperature and little precipitation.

ü  Vegetation : Lichens , Mosses’, Hedges etc.,

ü  Animals: Musks, Reindeers, Polar bears etc.,

ü  Birds: Geese, Duck, Plovers etc.,


Ø  Caves

It is a natural underground space large enough for human to enter. These are formed naturally by the weathering of rock and often extend into the underground.

They are devoid of pigmentation, eyes are  absent, body is long and slender.


ü  Mollusks: Shell is thin

ü  Fishes: Scale less

ü  Arthropoda : Poorly developed exoskeleton

Category: My files | Added by: anve
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