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Flower(Part 2)
2013-03-01, 10:45 PM

Ø  Gynoecium

It is the essential organ consisting style, ovary also known as megasporophyll. They participate in sexual reproduction which produces seeds and fruits, also known as carpels or pistil.


·         Structure of Pistil

ü  Ovary : Basal swollwn part.

ü  Style: Elongated part of the ovary.

ü  Stigma: Tip of the style.


·         Types of Ovary

Based on the position of the ovary they are of three types as follows



o   Superior / Epigynous flower

The floral parts are arranged below the ovary on the thalamus.    Example: Hibiscus.


o   Half superior/Half inferior/ Perigynous flower

The floral parts are arranged at the same height of the ovary on the thalamus. Example: Dolichos.


o   Inferior/Hypogynous flower

The floral parts are arranged above the ovary on the thalamus.    Example: Tridax


Based on the number of carpels they are of many types as follows

ü  Monocarpellary: Ovary with one carpel. Example: Dolichos

ü  Bicarpellary: Ovary with two carpels. Example: Brassica

ü  Tricarpellary: Ovary with three carpels .Example: Ricinus

ü  Tetracarpellary: Ovary with  four carpels.Example: Oenothera

ü  Pentacarpellary: Ovary with five carpels.Example: Hibiscus

ü Multicarpellary: Ovary with many carpels.Example: Annona

Based on the fusion of the carpels they are of three types as follows

·         Apocarpous: Carpels present on the thalamus remains free.     Example: Lotus.

·         Sub apocarpous: Carpels present on the thalamus are partly fused and partly free.        Example: Lotus.

·         Syncarpous: Carpels present on the thalamus are fused.       Example: Calotropis

Ø  Locules in Ovary

The cavities present in the carpels are known as locules which are different from species to species as follows

·         Unilocular: Carpels with one locule.        Example: Dolichos

·         Bilocular: Carpels with two locules.         Example: Solanum

·         Trilocular: Carpels with three locules.     Example: Onion

·         Tetralocular: Carpels with four locules.  Example: Ipomoea

·         Pentalocular: Carpels with five locules.  Example: Hibiscus

·         Multilocular: Carpels with many locules. Example: Abutilon

Ø  Placentation

The ovary consists of one or more ovules and ovule is considered as megasporangium.After fertilization ovules develop into seeds .The part of the ovary that bears the ovules is known as placenta and the mode of arrangement of ovules in the ovary known as placentation. They are of 7 types

·         Marginal placentation: Ovary is monocarpellary and unilocular.                 Example: Dolichos

·Parietal placentation: Ovary is bicarpellary and unilocular.                                            Example: Brassica

·         Axile placentation: Ovary is bicarpellary or multicarpellary and unilocular.  Example: Solanum


·         Free central placentation: Ovary is multicarpellary and unilocular. Example: Dianthus

·         Basal placentation: Ovary is monocarpellary and unilocular. Example: Tridax

·         Apical placentation: Ovary is monocarpellary and unilocular. Example: Lotus

·         Superficial placentation: Ovary is multicarpellary, multilocular and unilocular. Example: Lily


Ø  Style

It is a adequate, stalk like structure develops from ovary. During fertilization it acts as a guide to the pollen tube and helps to reach ovary. Based on the position they are of three types as follows

·         Terminal style: Develops from the apical part of the ovary           Example: Hibiscus

·         Lateral style: Develop from the side of the ovary.            Example: Mango

·         Gynobasic style: Develops directly from the base of the ovary.  Example: Ocimum

Ø  Stigma

It is the terminal part of the style which receives the pollen grains. Based on their shape and structure they are of many types

·         Capitate : Round stigma.                                Example: Hibiscus

·         Plumose: Feather stigma                               Example: Oryza

·         Bifid : Fork stigma.                                                            Example: Tridax

·         Dumb-bell : Dumb-bell stigma.                    Example: Catharanthus.

·         Discoid:Disc stigma.                                          Example: Berry.

·         Funnel : Funnel stigma.                                   Example: Crocus

·         Linear: Lond & narrow stigma.                     Example: Acacia

·         Radiate: Hooked stigma.                                                Example: Papaver

.......................THE END...........................









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1 AlbertPhist   [Entry]
The men's prostate is an essential section of a male's reproductive :. It secretes fluids that assisted in the transportation and activation of sperm. The prostate can be found just before the rectum, below the bladder and all around the urethra. When there is prostate problem, in most cases very uncomfortable and inconvenient for the patient as his urinary strategy is directly affected.

The common prostate medical problems are prostate infection, enlarged prostate and prostate type of cancer.

Prostate infection, often known as prostatitis, is the most common prostate-related problem in men younger than 55 years old. Infections in the men's prostate are classified into four types - acute bacterial prostatitis, chronic bacterial prostatitis, chronic abacterial prostatitis and prosttodynia.

Acute bacterial prostatitis is the least common of all types of prostate infection. It is a result of bacteria based in the large intestines or urinary tract. Patients may go through fever, chills, body aches, back pains and urination problems. This condition is treated through the use of antibiotics or non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to help remedy the swelling.

Chronic bacterial prostatitis is a condition associated with a particular defect inside gland along with the persistence presence of bacteria inside the urinary tract. It can be caused by trauma for the urinary tract or by infections from the rest of the body. A patient can experience testicular pain, small of the back pains and urination problems. Although it is uncommon, it may be treated by removal from the prostate defect accompanied by the employment antibiotics and NSAIDs to treat the inflammation.

Non-bacterial prostatitis makes up about approximately 90% coming from all prostatitis cases; however, researchers have not yet to create what causes these conditions. Some researchers believe that chronic non-bacterial prostatitis occur as a consequence of unknown infectious agents while other believe intensive exercise and high lifting could cause these infections.

Maintaining a Healthy Prostate

To prevent prostate diseases, a proper diet is important. These are some with the actions to keep your prostate healthy.

1. Drink sufficient water. Proper hydration is essential for overall health and it will also keep the urinary track clean.

2. Some studies declare that a couple of ejaculations a week will assist to prevent cancer of the prostate.

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4. Maintain an appropriate diet with cereals, vegetable and fruits to make certain sufficient intake of nutrients necessary for prostate health.

The most critical measure to look at to be sure a wholesome prostate is to select regular prostate health screening. If you are forty years old and above, you need to select prostate examination at least a year.

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