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First Aid ( Sun stroke, Snake bite)
2013-02-25, 9:12 PM

First Aid

                An immediate treatment which is given to the person who met with an accident before going to the doctor known as first aid.

Ø  Heat/Sun Stroke

·         Skin is not only protective in function but also sensitive supplied with blood vessels.

·         When the temperature is high, thermo receptors stimulates and results in increasing the blood flow to the skin.

·         Then the glands (sweat) extract water and salts from the blood and produces more sweat.

·         When sweat evaporates due to heat, it cools the body.

·         In winter, blood supply to the glands are reduced and sweating is reduced which helps in retaining body temperature normal.


Ø  Effects from Heat / Sun stroke

·         Dehydration

When a person exposed to hot conditions, several changes occurs in the body, hence sweating increases, and excreted from the body.


ü  Move the person to a cool place.

ü  Give cool water for drinking.

·         Heat syncope

When a person working in hot conditions near furnaces, boilers, stoves or in hot sun may faint suddenly.


ü  Move the person to a cool place.

ü  Allow to rest.

ü  Cool water/fruit juices should be given.

·         Heat cramps

By working in hot conditions some people complains severe pain and cramps in the legs due to loss of Nacl from the body in the form of sweat.


ü  Person must stop to work.

ü  Shifting to the cool place.

ü  Giving cold water with a little salt dissolved in it.

ü  Slow and gentle massage relieves the cramps.

·         Heat exhaustion

When the person working in hot conditions for a long time, leads to the loss of Nacl/water/both.

§  Water loss

Person complains about intense thirst and fever and finally leads to unconscious and goes into comma.


ü  Move the person to a cool place.

ü  Giving large quantities of cool water/fruit juices.

ü  Person unable to drink, give glucose solution directly into blood vessels (done by doctors).


§  Salt loss

Person complains of muscle camps, vomiting and diarrhoea but not thirst and fever.


ü  Move him to a cool place.

ü  Give cool water with salt.

ü  Salt tablets may also be given

ü  If the person unable to drink, take him to the doctor for treatment.


·         Sun stroke

§  Usually seen in summer due to hot sun.

§  Patient initially suffers from head ache, dizziness, visual disturbances and fever (105-107 ⁰F).

§  Blood pressure will be lower than the normal, no sweating from the body

§  If not treated at this stage, person goes into comma and may be die (because of heat controlling mechanism failure).


ü  Move him to a cool place.

ü  Remove the clothes and cover the body with a wet towel/cloth, it reduces the body temperature.

ü  Process should be continued till the body temperature, reduced to 101-102⁰F and give rest till body temperature becomes normal.First Aid

Snake bite

All snakes which we are seeing are not poisonous, only few of them are poisonous. The snakes which live in water, on trees and on land are poisonous to small animals but not to man. Sea snakes are highly poisonous.

Common Poisonous Snakes

Common Name

Scientific Name


Indian cobra

Naja naja

Nervous Sysytem

King cobra

Ophiophagus hanna

Nervous Sysytem

Indian krait

Bungarus coeruleus

Nervous Sysytem

Banded krait

Bungarus fasciatus

Nervous Sysytem


Saw scaled viper

Echis carinata

Ciculatory system

Rusell’s viper

Vipera russeli

Ciculatory system

Sea snake

Hydrophis articeps


Sea snake( Porked)

Enhydrina schistose



ü  Toxins: chemical substances present in the snake venom.

ü  Neurotoxins: toxins which affects the nervous system.

If venom contains neurotoxins, symptoms like drooping of eye lids, faulty speech, unsteady walking, breathing trouble and even paralysis can be seen in about 2hrs after bite.


ü  Haemolytic toxins: toxins which affects the blood vessels and blood cells, they rupture the walls of blood vessels and cells (RBC).

If venom contains haemolytic toxins, symptoms like severe blood loss, local swelling and severe pain. Due to the loss of blood, heart functioning may even stop.

Ø  Identification of Poisonous & Non- poisonous Snakes

Before treating, one should know that the bite is due to poisonous/non-poisonous snake.

Ø  Poisonous snake bite: it leaves 1 or 2 fang marks which look like a pin pricks on the body.


o   Symptoms

o   Blood and serum oozes out of the wound.

o   Severe pain, numbness, tingling sensation and local swelling, redness is observed.

o   Non-poisonous snake bite: Gives a shape of U. 

            o   Symptoms

o   Blood comes out and clots outside the site.

o   Primarily intense pain, numbness, tingling sensation local swelling, redness are observed.

Ø  Treatment

·         Person must be allowed to rest and shifted to a less crowded place.

·         The venom which is outside the site of injury should be viped with a wet cloth.

·         Bandage/cloth must be applied tightly above the bite towards the direction of heart, called as tourniquet. This will reduces the flow of blood towards heart and distribution of poison.

·         If no medical help is available, a cut is made with sterilized blade. After that blood should be sucked out. This process can remove 50% of venom.

·         Breathing problem:  Mouth to mouth respiration.

·         Sucking blood: Without any injuries on lips and mouth.


Ø  Anti-snake venoms

·         Anti-venom comes in the form of powder.

·         Before use, it is dissolved in sterile distilled water and injected into the veins.

·         Antibodies present in the anti-venom bind to the toxins of the venom and neutralize it.

·         If snake is identified, antivenom of particular snake venom is given. If not, polyvalent-anti-venom is injected.

·         Giving mild sedative and drugs tp prevent shock reactions.


Ø  About snake bites

·         About 15,000 people die due to snakebites in our country.

·         This is due to ignorance, superstitious and lack of proper medical facilities.

·         Some will show belief that mantras will cure the snake bites; it leads to delay in giving proper medical care.



Category: My files | Added by: anve
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